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Posts Tagged ‘Endeavour River

Joshua Slocum in Google Earth: Whitsunday Passage to Cooktown

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Follow Joshua Slocum’s Sailing Alone Around the World at: http://www.hazelhurst.net/Slocum

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Captain Cook, taking Endeavour through Whitsunday Passage (named by him because 03Jun1770 was Whit Sunday), sailed through the night and arrived the following morning at: “a lofty promontory that I named Cape Gloucester”.

Joshua Slocum, a few days short of 127 years later, passes here on 26May1897. His charts show more accurately than Cook’s survey that the promontory is actually detached from the mainland and is now called Gloucester Island. The Spray hauls into the bay to the west of the island and anchors at Port Denison, close to the small town of Bowen.

Bowen at that time has a population of around 1,000; large enough to support a keen audience for Slocum’s story.

By 31May1897, the Spray, has carried Slocum safely through 350 miles of the Great Barrier Reef. Without anchoring anywhere, Slocum sails past many of the other capes, bays, and islands named by Cook:

  • Cape Upstart
  • Cape Cleveland
  • Cleveland Bay
  • Cape Richards
  • Rockingham Bay
  • Cape Grafton
  • Fitzroy Island
  • Cape Tribulation (“for here all my troubles began”)

Cook also named the Endeavour River, for it was here that H.M.Bark Endeavour was beached for repairs after she had struck a reef just north of Cape Tribulation (the reef was named unsurprisingly Endeavour Reef).

Cooktown was certainly in existence before the gold rush of the 1870s, when the settlement grew rapidly as a supply port, because Slocum reports visiting on the steamship Soushay in 1866; he didn’t see much of it at that time because he was ill with a fever.

The “lecture tour” continues when a meeting is arranged in the Presbyterian church and Slocum delivers his “story of the sea.”


The section of Joshua Slocum’s journey reported here opens Chapter XV of Sailing Alone Around the World, and this post is a trailer for the adventure that I am retelling in Google Earth at:  http://www.hazelhurst.net/Slocum

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

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Captain Cook’s First Voyage Round The World

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The following slideshow and image gallery show screenshots taken from Captain Cook’s First Voyage Round The World, a presentation of Cook’s journal containing more than 15 hours of animation and audio.

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To view the presentation, point your web browser to http://www.hazelhurst.net/Cook/ and install the Google Earth plug-in if you don’t already have it installed.

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

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If you enjoyed Cook’s voyage, you might also like Joshua Slocum’s Sailing Alone Around the World, a similar virtual re-enactment of a famous sea voyage by the first single-handed circumnavigator; this presentation is still under construction.

 

Captain Cook in Google Earth: a new presentation

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I have felt for a while that my presentation in Google Earth of Captain Cook‘s first voyage round the world is a little unwieldy and slow to load. Therefore, I have created a version using the Google Earth API that allows the voyage to be viewed in a web browser.

By chopping up the voyage into sections of about ten minutes duration, the audio files load much faster; and those who are reluctant to install the full Google Earth application can still view the presentation.

You can find the exploration of Australia at: www.hazelhurst.net/Cook/

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

Captain Cook in Google Earth: Endeavour River to Lizard Island

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Endeavour passing Lizard Island at noon on Monday, 13Aug1770

Endeavour passing Lizard Island at noon on Monday, 13Aug1770

At 0700 on Saturday, 04Aug1770 Endeavour set sail from her anchorage in Endeavour River. The search was on either to find a way through the maze of shoals inshore or to discover a route to the east or north-east into deeper water. The objective, now, was to get the ship to the East Indies where she might be repaired. At the same time, Cook was reluctant to leave the coast entirely, still wanting to explore the land he had discovered and to determine, once and for all, whether New Holland was connected to New Guinea.

In Cook’s journal, you definitely sense  the stress they felt of manoeuvring the damaged ship through the shallows:

We steered alongshore north-west by west until one o’clock when the petty officer at the masthead called out that he saw land ahead extending quite round to the islands without, and a large reef between us and them. Upon this, I went to the masthead myself. The reef I saw very plain, which was now so far to windward that we could not weather it, but what he took for the main ahead were only small islands, for such they appeared to me; but before I had well got from the masthead, the master and some others went up, who all asserted that it was a continuation of the mainland, and to make it still more alarming they said they saw breakers, in a manner, all around us. We immediately hauled upon a wind in for the land…

Anchored off Turtle Reef on 05Aug1770

Anchored off Turtle Reef on 05Aug1770, showing Endeavour River and Cape Bedford

The first sign of this extreme caution was that Endeavour anchored one mile from Turtle Reef so that Cook could wait for low water when the reefs were more likely to be  exposed and the shoal water would be more evident. This reef had supplied them over the weeks with many turtles, a valuable supplement to their diet, and men were despatched to seize whatever last minute supplies could be found.

Viewing the outer reefs from the masthead on 05Aug1770

Viewing the outer reefs from the masthead on 05Aug1770 (3D model courtesy of Philipp Müller)

At low water and at anchor near Turtle Reef, Cook went to the masthead and:

I took a view of the shoals, and could see several laying a long way without this one, a part of several of them appearing above water; but as it appeared pretty clear of shoals to the north-east of the Turtle Reef, I came to a resolution to stretch out that way, close upon a wind, because if we found no passage we could always return back the way we went.

They set off in that direction but eventually met with more shoal water. The wind was now blowing a strong gale and they dropped anchor. However, the wind was so strong that it blew (drove) Endeavour along northwards, dragging the anchor along the seabed; it was only after removing all sails and spars from the rigging and paying out more chain that the anchors held.

Passing inshore of The Three Isles on 10Aug1770

Passing inshore of The Three Isles on 10Aug1770 with Cape Flattery ahead

By 10Aug1770, Endeavour was under sail once more and had passed Cape Bedford. She headed in for the land, then edged away, passing inshore of The Three Isles: ‘having another low island between us and the main…in this channel, had 13 fathoms water’.

For some time the soundings seemed to indicate that the ship was in deep water:

We now judged ourselves to be clear of all danger, having, as we thought, a clear open sea before us; but this we soon found otherwise, and occasioned my calling the headland above mentioned Cape Flattery.

After avoiding a reef ahead of them, Endeavour was steered inshore where she was anchored one mile from the headland that Cook called Point Lookout. From this promontory, he could see 9 or 10 small, low island to the north where the water close to the coast looked very shallow. He could see three high islands about 15 miles offshore and he resolved to visit the largest in order to take a view of the outer edge of the reef system. He had already guessed where the outer reef lay because the large Pacific swell rolling in from the south-east ‘broke prodigious high’ compared with the breakers within.

The outer reef viewed from Lizard Island

The outer reef viewed from Lizard Island

Accordingly, he sailed over to the island in the pinnace with Mr. Banks and a small crew. Based on the number of lizards they found there, he named it Lizard Island. His journal reports:

I did not reach the island until half an hour after one o’clock in the p.m. on Sunday, 12th, when I immediately went upon the highest hill on the island where, to my mortification, I discovered a reef of rocks laying about 2 or 3 leagues without the island, extending in a line north-west and south-east, father than I could see, on which the sea broke very high. This however, gave one great hopes that they were the outermost shoals, as I did not doubt but what I should be able to get without them, for there appeared to be several breaks or partitions in the reef, and deep water between it and the islands.

So, taking into account the master’s survey of the coastal waters, where there were clearly extensive shallows close in with the land, Cook formulated a plan and reached a consensus with his officers, to take Endeavour to the safety of deep water through a suitable gap in the outer reef. At daylight on 13Aug1770, they set sail from Point Lookout and by noon they were one mile to the west-north-west of the north point of Lizard Island and heading towards the outer reef…


Today, I added this leg of Cook’s exploration of the Australian coast to my Google Earth tour which presents his first voyage round the world.

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

Images of Earth © Google and others

If you would like to follow Cook’s voyage, you will need to install the latest version of Google Earth on your computer; then go to the Captain Cook blog  and click on the links on the right-hand side of the page, under the ‘Google Earth’ heading. After the animation is loaded in Google Earth, you need to expand an entry in the Table of Contents. You will see a ‘Play’ icon which you double-click to start the animation. Don’t forget to enable your speakers to hear the spoken journal.

Captain Cook in Google Earth: Endeavour River

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Hauled ashore in Endeavour River

Hauled ashore in Endeavour River

Endeavour was badly in need of repair. After feeling their way along the coast in search of a safe harbour, Cook anchored Endeavour, on 14Aug1770, one mile offshore at the entrance to a river where soundings had shown there was a sufficient depth of water.

With shoals nearby and strong onshore winds, they had to wait until the morning of the 17th before they could bring the ship into the river. Even so, they ran aground twice before warping the ship to a place where she could be hauled up on the beach.

Over the next six to seven weeks the ship was repaired to the best of the ability of the carpenter and his men. The armourer set up a forge to make nails and pieces of ironwork. Meanwhile, the crew was sustained by fishing parties in the river and by the discovery of a reef, 12 to 15 miles out at sea, where there were turtles in abundance. By way of vegetables, the crew collected purslanes, beans, cabbage palms, and a type of kale.

Mr. Molineux, the master, explored the shoals in the offing, taking soundings in search of a route out to deep water. Meanwhile, Cook visited the hills to the north and south of the harbour to take a view both of the reefs and the countryside. For some time he struggled with the decision about which way to take the ship. To return to the south, the way they had come, would be hindered by the steady south-easterly winds they would encounter. However, the route to the north was unknown, and did not look promising. If they sailed north they might, eventually, have to return to the south anyway.

As usual Cook tried to communicate with the people he met and of whom he wrote:

Their features were far from disagreeable; their voices were soft and tunable, and they could easily repeat any word after us, but neither us nor Tupia could understand a single word they said.

In addition to the people, Cook described the diverse flora and fauna, including the first kangaroos they had ever seen.


Today, I added this leg of Cook’s exploration of the Australian coast to my Google Earth tour which presents his first voyage round the world. The time spent in Endeavour River spans about seven weeks, so I have divided it into the following sections:

  • Beaching the ship.
  • Repairing the ship.
  • Waiting for wind and tide.
  • Description of Endeavour River.

These sections are held in a folder entitled ‘Endeavour River’, and each section is a separate Google Earth tour.

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

If you would like to follow Cook’s voyage, you will need to install the latest version of Google Earth on your computer; then go to the Captain Cook blog  and click on the links on the right-hand side of the page, under the ‘Google Earth’ heading. After the animation is loaded in Google Earth, you need to expand an entry in the Table of Contents. You will see a ‘Play’ icon which you double-click to start the animation. Don’t forget to enable your speakers to hear the spoken journal.

Captain Cook in Google Earth: Beached in Endeavour River

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Endeavour beached in Endeavour River - Google Earth and Johann Fritzsch engraving

I have now navigated Endeavour in Google Earth to the safety of the Endeavour River where the ship was beached to effect repairs. The screenshot above shows the ship both in Google Earth and in the engraving created by Johann Christian Fritzsch in about 1786.


Limping along and edging towards the land, Endeavour had the boats out ahead to dodge the shoals that surrounded her. At 3pm on 13Jun1770, Cook thought they had found a possible harbour, but the water proved too shallow. With sunset approaching they came to an anchor 2 miles from the shore.

Endeavour at anchor surrounded by shoals on 14Jun1770

Endeavour at anchor surrounded by shoals on 14Jun1770

At 8pm, the pinnace returned with news that 5 or 6 miles to the north was another possible place where the ship could be beached for repairs. It was already too dark to move the ship, so they waited until 6am the following morning to run down to it. On the way they encountered more shoals, at one time having only 3 fathoms of water, or 4 feet beneath the keel.

Now the wind freshened and blew onshore. Cook feared that the ship might be driven on to the coast before the boats could lay the channel. Once again they anchored, about a mile from the shore and close to the mouth of the Endeavour River.

Endeavour anchored one mile from the mouth of Endeavour River on 14Jun1770

Cook surveyed the channel himself and found it narrower and the harbour smaller than he had been told, but he thought it was “very convenient for our purpose”.

On the 15th and 16th of June, 1770, they were prevented by strong gales from moving the ship, but on the 17th it moderated sufficiently for the crew to weigh anchor and run in. They went ashore twice, driven by onshore winds, and the second time they stuck fast. Cook used this opportunity to take down various spars from the ship in order to construct a raft which they floated alongside. They also wanted to lighten the ship forward as much as possible to make it easier to beach the ship.

Finally, at 1pm on 17Jun1770, they floated the ship once more and warped her into harbour on a steep beach on the south side of the river.


Today, I added this leg of Cook’s exploration of the Australian coast to my Google Earth tour which presents his first voyage round the world.

Copyright © Colin Hazlehurst, 2012

If you would like to follow Cook’s voyage, you will need to install the latest version of Google Earth on your computer; then go to the Captain Cook blog  and click on the links on the right-hand side of the page, under the ‘Google Earth’ heading. After the animation is loaded in Google Earth, you need to expand an entry in the Table of Contents. You will see a ‘Play’ icon which you double-click to start the animation. Don’t forget to enable your speakers to hear the spoken journal.

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